Covidin is an extensively used oral vaccine used to protect children against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. The vaccine was licensed for use in countries in late 1989 and has been followed up successfully. The major component of the vaccine is live vaccine virus (Virus). The vaccine is made from strain of enterovirulent agent which is responsible for causing diphtheria and pemphigoid.
The major aim of the study conducted on behalf of the World Health Organization was to monitor the safety and efficacy of Indian Cohosh vaccine doses in children who had been exposed to endemic diphtheria and pertussis. The analysis was done using the previously published Indian Cohosh Study results. A total of 925 children who had received either placebo or vaccine-aid were included in the study. Analysis of the vaccinated children’s body fluids revealed no adverse events or symptoms occurred in the group. An evaluation of immune parameters and sera showed that the subjects had good levels of titer-antigen and competent immunity towards diseases caused by pathogens in the Indian context.
The study was conducted by the renowned Public Health Institute, Hyderabad, using the previously published protocol. The research was conducted by the immunology department under the guidance of the distinguished Professor B.S. Sahoo, O.M. Gough and C.R. Kohli, all from the Hyderabad Institute of Public Health.
Clinical trials are basically double-blind, that is, there is no way of influencing the subjects except by withholding the vaccine or its ingredient. Thus it ensures the protection of the subjects from the side effects due to unnatural pharmacology. One aspect of the clinical trial is that some viruses cause local fever and some others are capable of causing more severe complications. Hence, the vaccinated subjects may develop a mild fever after the administration of the jab; however, this can be prevented by implementation of good hygiene. Also, the subjects are advised not to drink fluid till the day the jab is given to them.
Two types of vaccines against poliovirus A and B are licensed for use in India. The first one is the August-VPax vaccine, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, purified from live ovalbumin cells (Omniomyces cervisus) and is scheduled to commence on the first day of August, every year. The second is therixon varimorphs vaccine, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, also purified from ovalbumin cells but has a unique DNA double-strand structure. It is scheduled to commence on the first day of August, each year. Both these vaccines are highly protected against human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus and herpes virus, and have high levels of protective antibodies.
After the administration of the jab, the individual is expected to continue with the intake of vitamins, minerals, fruits and vegetables to strengthen the immune system, especially the b vaccine. Moreover, the subjects are also encouraged to engage in physical exercises to build up the muscle mass. This strengthens the neck and other muscles that help in the fitting and the hold of the vaccine sleeves on the hands and the feet. Also, the subjects are required to undergo special medical procedures to remove any obstruction or swelling in the neck or other muscles, before and after the administration of the jab. These medical procedures to maintain the strength of the immune system are called “nasal packing” or “pneumonectomy.”
Another strain of the deadly Q fever strain is identified as the bbv 152 strain. This strain affects children more than adults, hence the name “bbv152.” This strain is responsible for approximately 40% of the deaths that occur every year due to Q fever in India. The recent epidemic has resulted in the deaths of at least fourteen children and one to four adults who contracted the disease from unlicensed practitioners. Hence, it is advisable that anyone traveling to India, particularly to West Bengal, should be aware of this problem and be ready with adequate antiviral medicine if the outbreak does take place.